Saturday, March 14, 2020

Gender Role Violations essays

Gender Role Violations essays A stereotype is a fixed or conventional notion or concept. There are many different stereotypes. Gender, racial and ages are among some of them. Gender stereotyping is perhaps one of the more serious ones. Stereotypes often associate girls as being cute, sweet, loving and understanding. Although some girls may fit into this stereotype, it can be assured that not all girls are like that and some are just the opposite of this stereotype. Stereotypes often associate boys as being mischievous, carefree, dirty, mean, cruel and stupid. For example, displays of emotion are often criticized for being un-masculine. Whereas emotional behavior in girls is expected, and therefore accepted. Some boys may fit into this stereotype; there are most likely some that dont. Girls can be at least as bad as boys can and likewise boys can be just as sweet as some girls can, if not so more. A lot of males violent behavior and females actions can mostly be accredited to family. Parents usually raise boys to be more on the aggressive side. Playing sports such as hockey and football, which encourage violence. Girls, however, are generally brought up on more feminine activities. Some examples of these are figure skating, dance and gymnastics, just to name a few. Biology, too can have a role in the effects of stereotypes. The males role as being a dominant is apparent before birth. There is a prenatal process that is responsible for this. Testosterone, the predominant male hormone, is rooted before birth and is responsible for the maturing of the areas of the brain that are related too. The fact that men are more willing to endure pain to understand what they must do for dominance is an example of something that could be more biologically inclined. When it comes to different levels of control in different situations, it is still assumed that men have the upper hand. Research done over the years has shown that men an...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Analyze a photogrpah Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Analyze a photogrpah - Essay Example The figure of Ophelia has long been symbolic of the silencing of women in literature and in the larger context of society itself. Crewdson uses the same principle to create his work. It is interesting to note that the artistic representations of Ophelia changes media over time as well. Starting from the famous oil on canvas painting of Ophelia by John Everett Millais, the more haunting painting of Ophelia by Pierre Auguste Cot to the rich, pastoral representation by painter Henry Nelson O’ Neil, the image of the manic depressive drowning herself seemed to have struck a chord with several artists over the ages. Crewdson recognises this timeless quality of the character and chooses to interpret it himself also but in the different, more contemporary, medium of film. Studying the picture closely reveals how the same motif of female suppression persists in history. Here, the scene is not a forest and a river, but a regular drawing room. The drawing room itself, although not overtl y outrageous, is extremely surrealistic and eerie in some ways. The most visible evidence of its unnatural condition, of course, is the water that appears to flood the room. The still water with the woman’s hand partly submerged in it appears almost frozen and lends the entire scene a rigid, menacing quality. The drawing room is heavily furnished, almost stifling.

Monday, February 10, 2020

Read the article first, then answer the question Assignment

Read the article first, then answer the question - Assignment Example Public praise and recognition are examples of intrinsic rewards, while tangible rewards in the workplace such as promotions are examples of extrinsic rewards. A good leader is able to inspire others through his actions, words, and job achievements. In workplaces were the bosses show favoritism employees often get discourage and lose motivation. Felt inequity in the workplace is a factor that destroys motivation. Equity theory states that employees will react based on their felt perception of fairness and justice (Managementstudyguide). Motivating the employees is in the best interest of the manager or leader. Employees that are motivated are more likely able to achieve job satisfaction. â€Å"In order for an organization to be successful they must continuously ensure the satisfaction of their employees† (Arizona). Companies that have motivated staffs suffer from lower employee turnover rate. Losing employees is not in the best interest of companies since employee churn hurts the company in terms of training cost, productivity, and recruiting expenses. In the case study Bonuses can Backfire the company made the mistake of relying solely on bonuses to motivate employees. The use of rewards can reduce the employees’ intrinsic interest in the task they are supposed to perform. A more effective strategy is for a manager to combine the use of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. It is important for employees to get the moral support of their superiors. Often intangible rewards such as telling a worker that they did a good job at the end of the shift can inspire the employee. Sometimes employees cheat the system and act in unethical and illicit manners in order to obtain a financial reward. Kenneth Fay, former CEO of Enron, is an example of an executive that falsified financial information to obtain an economic benefit. His bonuses were tied to the financial performance of the corporation. Companies must never

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Child Development Models Essay Example for Free

Child Development Models Essay This essay will describe the different explanations for childrens behaviour, examining the Psychodynamic, Behaviourist and Social Learning perspectives. It will also evaluate each of these theories and make reference to their practical application. In doing so, the essay will set out how parents, child psychologists, social workers and teachers can aim to understand childrens behaviour.  As Haggerty (2006) states, The theory supporting psychodynamic therapy originated in and is informed by psychoanalytic theory. The psychoanalytic approach to therapy was developed by Sigmund Freud, an Austrian psychiatrist. Freuds model proposed that an individual has three elements to their psychological self: the ego, superego and id. The id is the most primitive, consisting of largely unconscious  biological impulses. The ego uses reality and its  consequences to modify the behaviour being urged by the  id. The superego judges actions as right or wrong based  on the persons internal value system.  (Strickland ed., 2001, p.637)  According to Freud, children progress through various psychosexual stages of development. He claimed that, at particular points in the process, a single body part is particularly sensitive to erotic stimulation (Stevenson, 1996). The first stage begins at birth and continues until approximately 1 year old. It is classified as The Oral Stage because the mouth and lips are the main focus, displaying biting, sucking and chewing behaviour. The Anal Stage comes next and usually occurs between 1 and 3 years old. Toilet training encourages the child to enjoy expelling faeces. At this point the id will be satisfied by this instantaneous pleasure and will be in conflict with the ego and superego, which are concerned with controlling bodily functions to satisfy social expectations and practicality.  The Phallic Stage occurs between approximately 3 and 5 years old and contains one of Freuds most controversial theories, the Oedipus complex (or Electra complex in females). His theory states that the child becomes focused upon the genital area and experiences turmoil in the form of an unconscious desire to possess the opposite-sexed parent and eliminate the same-sexed parent. What Freud termed the Latency Period comes next. He believed that sexual drive lay dormant due to repressed impulses and desires. At this stage, children focus upon non-sexual activities and form same-sex friendships.  At approximately 12 years old, a child faces puberty and enters what Freud classes as The Genital Stage. The focus returns to the genitals but this time in relation to others. There is now an interest in relationships and exploring sexuality. When a child is unable to resolve the conflicts that occur at any of these stages, fixation can occur. If needs are not met in a satisfactory way or if the individuals conscience or superego cannot deal with impulses and drives to love and to hate, then complex character traits emerge (Errington and Murdin, 2006). For example, oral fixation may result in an adult displaying pessimism, sarcasm or gullibility, whilst phallic fixation may result in recklessness or fear of commitment. Freud, like many who begin a movement, now receives much criticism. One area of weakness is the limited scope of his research, as his therapy work mainly focused upon upper middle class women. Another popularly criticised aspect of Freuds work is the emphasis on sexuality as, in his view, everything seems to stem from expression or repression of the sex drive (Boeree, 2006). Despite criticism, Freuds methods underpin the commonly held belief that childhood experiences are hugely important to personality development. In practical terms, those working with children today place great importance on ensuring that a childhood contains opportunities to develop, to learn the difference between right and wrong, and to learn to appropriately act upon or repress urges.  Behaviour therapy is defined as A collection of psychotherapeutic techniques aimed at altering maladaptive or unwanted behaviour patterns, especially through the application of principles of conditioning or learning. (Colman, 2006). The main influencers of this theory were Pavlov, Watson and Skinner. Ivan Pavlov, later to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology for his research into the digestive system, observed that dogs would salivate upon seeing their keeper, apparently in anticipation of being fed. (Strickland ed., 2001, p.478). Pavlov extended his experiment and rang a bell immediately before food was served to the dogs. Eventually, the dogs would salivate upon the bell ringing, even if no food was then served. This led Pavlov to develop an understanding of conditioned responses and unconditioned reflexes.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Television Soap Operas and Moral Debate :: Philosophy Research Papers

Television Soap Operas and Moral Debate ABSTRACT: This paper proposes that we should aim to refine talk about issues in soap opera as a means of developing moral reasoning skills. I begin with a report of work at schools in New Jersey over 1996-97, during which excerpts of a popular soap opera, 'Party of Five,' were used as the basis of a rigorous philosophical discussion of moral behavior. I then turn to the distinctive role of soap opera as a locus of moral discussion, with an example of a Mexicana telenovela. I suggest that children are already engaged in moral debate about soap operas and are eager to develop a more rigorous critical framework for the debate. I argue that children appreciate the opportunity to flesh out the school yard gossip about soap operas with a philosophically sophisticated discussion. My approach draws on the work of Matthew Lipman in philosophy for children, Neil Postman's critique of television, and David Buckingham's analysis of children's responses to television. The paper proposes that we aim to refine talk about issues in soap opera as a means of developing moral reasoning skills. It begins with a report of work at schools in New Jersey over 1996-7, during which excerpts of a popular soap opera, 'Party of Five' were used as the basis of a rigorous philosophical discussion of moral behaviour. The paper then turns to the distinctive role of soap opera as a locus of moral discussion, with an example of a Mexican telenovela. I suggest that children are already engaged in moral debate about soap operas and are eager to develop a more rigorous critical framework for the debate. My argument is that children appreciate the opportunity to flesh out the school yard gossip about soap operas with a philosophically sophisticated discussion. The approach draws on the work of Matthew Lipman in Philosophy for Children, Neil Postman's critique of television and David Buckingham's analysis of children's responses to television. PARTY OF FIVE Claudia: No, uh ah, no way. Charlie: Claudia Claudia: No, forget it. That's, that is a terrible thing to do. Julia: Yeah, it is. It is, but how else, Claude, I mean, how else are we going to get him here? Claudia: I don't know, but that? No, you can't tell him that. You can't have him get in his car and drive all the way over here thinking that. You don't think this is the cruelest thing you could do to a person, I mean you're actually OK with this ?

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Comunication Nowadays

I do not think so, they are just preferring those ways to communicate because they're fast, convenient and fun. First, they are very fast. We live in a world where communication is a very important thing. Suppose you're on a long trip and having a call to home to your cruel wife is must be required, how would you react? Of course, the mobile phone will be your best friend in this case. You can also save time and shorten four call is not received instantaneous by testing messages, so that the receivers can view your messages whenever hey see their phone.Second, they are convenient. The funny example above just to show that communication nowadays is fast, and it's not only fast, but it's also very convenient . One of the features of the mobile phones is allowing users to send messages to multiple recipients at the same time. It's extremely useful for you when you have to call for many people and the content is the same such as inviting to a party or sending a learning plan for your fri ends instead of calling one-by-one.Finally, using email or social outworks to communicate with each other are fun ways to keep in touch especially helpful with people who have friends or family members live far away from them. These are a places for you to be creative in your words and get rid of stress through several simple funny emoticons. In addition, email or social networks are also necessary for people who lives abroad such as student. I've heard that most student learning aboard said that homesick is very terrible. And they couldn't imagine how hard of living abroad be without something like email or social networks.The world has been producing many new high technology devices for communicating recently and probably many of more in the future that some people think talking face-to-face daily or using tradition phones like the old fashions. But they are just an easier way to communicate with people. Communication nowadays may be less frequently and directly than the past but things are changed, people have their choices to decide to communicate in their ways. In my opinion, we are communicating better than the past.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Process of Adjustment in Communication and the Effect...

The Process of Adjustment in Communication and the Effect on the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy Communication is regarded as a continuous process of adjustment. This process can be explained by looking at the recent repeal of the military’s Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy. This policy restricts the equal rights of homosexuals which has been a topic in heated debate for many years. Over the course of United States history, there have been numerous attempts at equalizing the rights among homosexuals, especially those in the military. As history progressed, the amount of attempts for equality had increased. A final ruling from a judge in 2010 ordered the military to change its policy on homosexual applicants, and allowed them to join.†¦show more content†¦On October 19, 2010, recruiters were finally given permission to accept openly gay and lesbian applicants. The D.A.D.T. Policy and Communication as a Process of Adjustment The Military’s Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy is an excellent example of the Communication as a Process of Adjustment Principle. Just as the principle states, Congress as well as the Military had to adjust their ways of communication to effectively communicate and gain approval from the United States citizens. When you look at the history of this policy, we can see that the military as well as congress have appropriately reflected the opinions of the American society. At first, society thought that homosexual was a psychological disorder, so the military acted and communicated appropriately by discharging and hospitalizing all homosexual military personnel. Starting with the gay and lesbian rights movements, the United States has been on a constant upward slope to accepting homosexuality. In recent years homosexuals have moved from a sub-culture, to an accepting mainstream America. We now have homosexuality on television being portrayed as a normal part of life, and gay marriage has become more of an important topic than ever before. These new values and beliefs have caused a vast amount of change in the equality of homosexuals in the United States. When looking at the military’s still intact Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy before 2010, they hadShow MoreRelatedSexual Orientation Discrimination in the Military1861 Words   |  8 PagesIn September 2011, the United States lifted the â€Å"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell† policy (DADT), which restricted gay, lesbian, and bisexuals from openly serving in the military. This was the first time in American history in which people of every sexual orientat ion could serve openly (â€Å"11 Facts About,† n.d.). This was a momentous occasion for some and not so much for others. 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Unable to consider the learner’s cultural background leads to ineffective satisfaction of students’ needs while meeting and satisfying students’ needs is the most important thing in teaching business English of TESOL. Q4. To make the learning process effective, modern technology is an important tool for teaching. The teacher can use computers, screens, projectors as visual aids when delivering a class. Students can also benefits from using modern technology receiving information or communicating